What is Taekwondo?
A dynamic Korean martial art and Olympic sport, Taekwondo translates as the ‘the way of hand and foot fighting’. It is a hugely popular martial art, with an estimated 70 million practitioners worldwide. The art is a comparatively recent evolution, developed following World War 2 by the original 9 Kwans (schools) from its Karate roots, settling on the name “Tae Kwon Do” in 1955. There is a body of academic research detailing the history of Taekwondo – we would recommend the 2016 iACT Conference and journal articles such as The Making of a Modern Myth: Inventing a Tradition for Taekwondo as useful starting points.
Taekwondo is associated with its spectacular kicking techniques, and most commonly known to the general public by the its Olympic sparring discipline, although this discipline is only one aspect of the sport and martial art. Taekwondo syllabuses include a wide variety of striking techniques, self defense training, series of prearranged patterns or forms, locks and throws, power breaking of wooden boards and other demonstration elements, and both semi and full contact disciplines of sparring competition. Some clubs exclusively teach a single element of Taekwondo, while others include various combinations of these elements as part of their training syllabuses.
Taekwondo students typically attend tests known as gradings every three to six months to evaluate their patterns, sparring and breaking techniques, and successful candidates are promoted in grade. A practitioner’s grade is denoted by a sequence of coloured belts for novice (Kup) grades followed by black belt (Dan) grades. In the majority of clubs an emphasis on discipline and good etiquette is taught alongside physical education.
What are the different disciplines of Taekwondo?
Semi-contact Sparring Competition
Taekwondo has become a hugely popular martial art worldwide and a number of disciplines are showcased in international competition. The variety of syllabuses taught are the result of complex history of influences, splits, hybrids and intrigues in the development of the martial art and sport.
While a variety of related disciplines exist, four are by far the most common in competition: semi contact rules sparring, Chang-Hon patterns, full contact rules sparring (as contested in the Olympic Games), and Kukkiwon patterns. These are most frequently taught together in pairs of sparring rules and patterns forms, and are often colloquially known as ‘ITF’ or ‘WT’ syllabuses after the international federations.
Kukkiwon Team Patterns Competition
As in many sports and martial arts the relationships between the various international federations is complex. World Taekwondo (formerly the World Taekwondo Federation) which delivers the WT full contact rules Olympic Games and other international events is a separate organisation from the Kukkiwon, a Taekwondo governing organisation established by the South Korean government in 1972 which trains Kukkiwon syllabus examiners. Following a schism in the largest International Taekwondo Federation following the death of founder General Choi Hong Hi, there are currently three substantial ITF organisations, each overseeing their own international events and each training examiners in very similar semi-contact sparring and Chang-Hon patterns based syllabuses. A variety of less common disciplines are also practiced, and groups partially or entirely independent from the larger national and international federations also organise competition in one or more of these most popular disciplines.
How is Taekwondo Organised Internationally?
IOC President Dr. Thomas Bach, with WTF President Dr. Choue Chungwon and ITF President Dr. Chang Ung
There are a large number of different international Taekwondo federations, and nationally you will find instructors affiliated to a wide variety different organisations providing Taekwondo training. While this variety has resulted in a variety of clubs to choose from, it has also resulted in divisions that have hindered participation between practitioners, and makes it difficult for newcomers to the sport to compare between different Taekwondo clubs and organisations. The BSTF provide independent and impartial advice to students, student unions and university sports departments who have any questions about the provision of Taekwondo training, gradings and tournaments – please contact us if you have any queries.
At an international level it was not until 2014, with the encouragement of the International Olympic Committee, that a protocol of accord was agreed between World Taekwondo (the international federation which oversees the Olympic Taekwondo event) and one of the big three International Taekwondo Federation organisations. The two organisations pledged to acknowledge their common roots, further their co-operation and promote cross participation amongst athletes across all disciplines of Taekwondo.
We welcome the open and collaborative approach now being adopted by these international federations, and hope to see further growth in multi-discipline events at the national level.
How is Taekwondo Organised Within Universities?
Outside of universities the typical model is for an instructor to open a Taekwondo club which they own and control. Instructors are often members of a larger Taekwondo association through which they access grading services and tournaments for their club’s members, and train and grade themselves under their association’s senior instructors.
BSTF Non-executive director Mehdi Mirza, Master Usman Dildar and WTF President Dr Chungwon Choue meeting in Oxford, UK
Within universities the structure is very different, as clubs and their sport departments employ a contracted instructor to teach a certain number of sessions per week, while an elected student club committee controls and operates the club. Students may purchase an annual membership or ‘license’ from the same organisation of which their instructor is a member which provides a member to member insurance policy during training, though in many cases the university sports department already insure student participants in all sports they provide. Third part insurance policies typically cost £10 – £30 per year and include access to that organisation’s events and grading services. There are several organisations university clubs may wish to engage for insurance and grading services, including one of the variety of associations themselves affiliated to either of the two NGB groups British Taekwondo and the British Taekwondo Council, or to one of several independent associations including Taekwondo England Limited, Taekwondo Scotland Limited, the Amateur Martial Association, Independent Taekwondo Schools, or to their Students’ Union only.
If this all sounds rather complex, the good news is that British Student Taekwondo Federation events are open to all university Taekwondo clubs, regardless of third party memberships. The BSTF is a registered charity, and provides representation for all university Taekwondo clubs equally. We are governed by Trustees who are elected directly by the university clubs themselves, working in the best interest of all of our members. We offer multi-discipline championships consistent with the rules of the respective international federations, independently insuring our events so that all university clubs can get on with training and competing freely together in the spirit of university sport. Please explore this website to learn more about our work.